1. Yip TT, Tsao SW, Ko KM, Xin JX, Kong YC: Shrew submaxillary gland epidermal growth factor: homologous radioreceptor assay and mitogenic activity. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 1986; 47:131-5.

  2. Ko KM, Yip TT, Tsao SW, Kong YC, Fennessy P, Belew MC, Porath J: Epidermal growth factor from deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 1986; 63: 431-40.

  3. Kong YC, Ko KM, Yip TT, Tsao SW: Epidermal growth factor from Chinese spotted deer velvet antler.  Acta Zool. Sin. 1987; 33: 301-8. (Chinese)

  4. Kong YC, Keung WM, Yip TT,  Ko KM,  Tsao SW, Ng MH: Evidence that epidermal growth factor is present in swiftlet's (Collocalia) nest.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1987; 87B: 221-6.

  5. Ko KM, Liang SM, Godin DV. Free radicals and diabetes", New J. Trad. Chin. Med. 1989; 21: 8-11. (Chinese)

  6. Godin DV, Ko KM, Garnett  ME: Altered antioxidant status in the ischemic/reperfused rabbit myocardium: effects of allopurinol.  Can. J. Cardiol. 1989; 5:365-71.

  7. Godin DV, Ko KM, Qayumi AK, Jamieson WRE: A method for monitoring the effectiveness of allopurinol pretreatment in the prevention of ischemia/reperfusion injury.  J. Pharmacol. Methods 1989;  22: 289-97.

  8. Godin DV, Garnett ME, Ko KM: Effects of a steroidal antioxidant (U74006F) in an acute model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.  Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 1990; 33: 189-92.

  9. Ko KM, Godin DV: Ferric ion-induced lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes: effects of phytic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1990; 95: 125-31.

  10. Ko KM, Godin DV: Inhibition of transition metal ion-catalysed ascorbate oxidation and lipid peroxidation by allopurinol and oxypurinol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1990; 40: 803-9.

  11. Ko KM, Garnett ME, Godin DV:  Altered antioxidant status in ischemic/reperfused rabbit myocardium: reperfusion time-course study. Can. J. Cardiol. 1990; 6: 299-304.

  12. Qayumi AK, Jamieson WRE, Godin DV, Lam S, Ko KM, Germann E, Van Den Broek J: Repsonse to allopurinol pretreatment in a swine model of heart lung transplantation. J. Invest. Surg. 1990; 3: 331-40.

  13. Godin DV, Ko KM: Allopurinol and ischemia/reperfusion injury: New use for an old drug?  Can. J. Cardiol. 1991; 7: 163-9.

  14. Ko KM, Godin DV: Effects of phytic acid on the myoglobin-t-butylhydroperoxide-catalysed oxidation of uric acid and peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids.  Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1991; 101: 23-9.

  15. Qayumi AK, Jamieson WRE, Godin DV, Ko KM,  Poostizadeh A: Correlation of red cell antioxidant status and heart-lung function in swine pretreated with allopurinol.  Transplantation 1993; 56: 37-43.

  16. Ng PC, Ko KM, So CM, Yick PK, Kong YC: Antioxidant activity of Ganoderma lucidum: Protective effects on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Acta Horticulturae (Netherlands) 1993; 332: 219-25.

  17. Ko KM, Yick PK, Chiu TW, Hui TY, Cheng CHK, Kong YC: Impaired hepatic antioxidant status in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats: An in vivo model for screening herbal extracts with antioxidant activities. Fitoterapia 1993; LXIV: 539-44.

  18. Ko KM, Yick PK, Poon MKT, Ip SP: Pro-oxidant and antioxidant effects of Trolox on ferric ion induced oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids.  Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1994; 141: 65-70.

  19. Ko KM, Yick PK, Poon MKT, Che CT, Ng KH, Kong YC: Schisandra Chinensis-derived antioxidant activities in 'Sheng Mai San', A compound formulation, In vivo and in vitro. Phytother. Res. 1995;  9: 203-6.

  20. Ko KM, Ip SP, Poon MKT, Wu SS, Che CT, Ng KH, Kong YC: Effect of a lignan-enriched Fructus Schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: Protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Planta Med. 1995; 61: 134-7.

  21. Ip SP, Poon MKT, Wu SS, Che CT, Ng KH, Kong YC, Ko KM: Effect of Schisandrin B on hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice: Protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Planta Med. 1995; 61: 398-401

  22. Ko KM, Mak DHF, Li PC, Poon MKT, Ip SP: Enhancement of hepatic glutathione regeneration capacity by a lignan-enriched extract of Fructus Schisandrae in rats. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 1995; 69: 439-42.

  23. Ip SP, Mak DHF, Li PC, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Effect of Schisandra Chinensis on aflatoxin B1 and cadmium chloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1996; 78: 413-6.

  24. Ko KM, Mak DHF, Li PC, Poon MKT, Ip SP: Protective effect of a lignan-enriched extract of Fructus Schisandrae on physcial exercise induced muscle damage. Phytotherapy Res. 1996; 10: 450-2.

  25. Li PC, Mak DHF, Poon MKT, Ip SP, Ko KM: Myocardial protective effect of Sheng Mai San (SMS) and a lignan-enriched extract of Fructus Schisandrae, in vivo and ex vivo. Phytomedicine 1996; III: 161-5

  26. Ip SP, Poon MKT, Che CT, Ng KH, Kong YC, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity by enhancing the mitochondrial glutathione redox status in mouse liver. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1996; 21: 709-12.

  27. Mak DHF, Ip SP, Li PC, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Alterations in tissue glutathione antioxidant system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1996; 162: 153-8.

  28. Ip SP, Ko KM: The crucial antioxidant action of schisandrin B in protecting against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice.  A comparative study with butylated hydroxytoluene.  Biochem. Pharmacol. 1996; 52: 1687-93.

  29. Li PC, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Schisandra chinensis-dependent myocardial protective action of 'Sheng Mai San' in rats. Am. J. Chinese Med. 1997; XXIV: 255-62

  30. Mak DHF, Ip SP, Li PC, Poon MKT, Ko, K.M: Effects of Schisandrin B and -tocopherol on lipid peroxidation, in vitro and in vivo. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1997; 165: 161-5.

  31. Li PC, Ip SP, Ko KM: Protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated perfused hearts by pretreatment of rats with schisandrin B (SCH B) from Fructus Schisandrae. Phytomedicine 1996; (supp.1): 82.

  32. Ip SP, Tse ASM, Ma CY, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Antioxidant activities of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., In Vivo and In vitro. Phytotherapy Res. 1997; 11: 42-4.

  33. Ip SP, Ma CY, Che CT, Ko KM: Methylenedioxy group as determinant of schisandrin in enhancing hepatic mitochondrial glutathione in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1997; 54: 317-9.

  34. Mak DHF, Ko KM: Alterations in susceptibility to carbon tetrachloride toxicity and hepatic antioxidant/detoxification system in streptozotocin-induced short-term diabetic rats. Effects of insulin and schisandrin B treatment.  Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1997; 175: 225-32.

  35. Ko KM, Che CT, Kong YC: Novel antioxidant activities 'Sheng Mai San' used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chinese J. Integrated Traditional Western Med. 1997; 3: 239-40.

  36. Ko KM, Ip SP: Novel antioxidant action of dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene derivatives from Fructus Schisandrae (Wuweizi). Advances in Free Radical Life Sciences 1997; 5: 25-33.

  37. Yick PK, Poon MKT, Ip SP, Ko KM: In vivo antioxidant mechanism of 'Sheng Mai San', A compound formulation. Pharmaceut. Biol. 1998; 36: 189-93.

  38. Ip SP, Che CT, Ko KM: Structure-activity relationship of schisandrins in enhancing liver mitochondrial glutathione status in CCl4- poisoned mice.  Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 1998; 19: 313-6.

  39. Yim TK, Wu WK, Mak DHF, Ko KM: Myocardial protective effect of an anthraquinone-containing extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.ex vivo. Planta Med. 1998; 64: 607-11.

  40. Yim TK, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by enhancing myocardial glutathione antioxidant status.  Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1999; 196: 151-6.

  41. Yim TK, Ko KM: Methylenedioxy group and cyclooctadiene ring as structural determinants of schisandrin in protecting against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1999; 57: 77-81.

  42. Ip SP, Yiu HY, Ko KM: Differential effect of schisandrin B and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (DDB) on hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated mice. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2000; 205: 111-4.

  43. Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF, Mak DHF, Liang SM, Ko KM: Myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented “Dang-Gui decoction for enriching blood”, a compound formulation, ex vivo. Phytother. Res. 2000; 4: 195-9.

  44. Ip SP, Yiu HY, Ko K M: Schisandrin B protects against menadione-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing DT-diaphorase activity. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2000; 208: 151-5.

  45. Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF,Ko KM: Hepatoprotective action of an oleanolic acid-enriched extract of Ligustrum Lucidum fruits is mediated through an enhancement on hepatic glutathione regeneration capacity in mice. Phytother. Res. 2001; 15: 589-92.

  46. Ip SP, Che CT, Kong YC, Ko KM: Effects of schisandrin B pretreatment on tumor necrosis factor-a induced apoptosis and Hsp70 expression in mouse liver. Cell Stress & Chaperones 2001; 6: 44-8.

  47. Ko K M, Mak DHF, Poon MKT, Yiu HY: Altered Susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated-reperfused hearts of short-term diabetic rats associated with changes in non-enzymatic antioxidants. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 2001; 85: 435-42.

  48. Yim TK, Ko KM: Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extracts on concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation of isolated murine splenocytes in vitro and ex vivo. Pharmaceutical Biol. 2001; 39: 146-51.

  49. Ko KM, Yiu HY: Schisandrin B modulates the ischemia-reperfusion induced changes in non-enzymatic antioxidant levels in isolated-perfused rat hearts. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2001; 220: 141-7.

  50. Ko KM, Poon Michel KT, Ip SP, Wu, K: Protection against carbon tetrachloride liver toxicity by enantiomers of schisandrin B associated with differential changes in hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice.  Pharmaceut. Biol. 2002; 40: 298-301.

  51. Pan SY, Han YF, Carlier PR, Pang Y P, Mak DHF, Lam BYH, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects against tacrine- and bis(7)-tacrine induced hepatotoxicity and enhances cognitive function in mice. Planta Med. 2002; 68: 217-20.

  52. Yim TK, Ko KM: Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of Chinese tonifying herbs, in vitro and ex vivo. Pharmaceut. Biol. 2002; 40: 329-35.

  53. Ko KM, Lam BYH: Schisandrin B protects against tert-butylhydroperoxide induced cerebral toxicity by enhancing glutathione antioxidant status in mouse brain. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2002; 238: 181-6.

  54. Chiu PY, Mak DHF, Poon MKT, Ko KM: In vivo antioxidant action of a lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra fruit and an anthraquinone-containing extract of Polygonum root in comparison with Schisandrin B and emodin. Planta Med. 2002; 68: 951-56.

  55. Tang MH, Chiu PY, Ko KM: Hepatoprotective action of schisandrin B against carbon tetrachloride toxicity was mediated by both enhancement of mitochondrial glutathione status and induction of heat shock proteins in mice. Biofactors 2003; 19: 33-42.

  56. Chiu PY, Ko KM: Time dependent enhancement in mitochondrial glutathione status and ATP generation capacity by schisandrin B treatment decreases the susceptibility of rat hearts to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Biofactors 2003; 19: 43-51.

  57. Chiu PY, Tang MH, Mak DHF, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Hepatoprotective mechanism of schisandrin B: Role of mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status and heat shock proteins. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2003; 35: 368-380.

  58. Beissenhirtz MK, Kwan RCH, Ko KM, Renneberg R, Schellaer FW, Lisdat F: Comparing an in vitro electrochemical measurement of superoxide scavenging activity with an in vivo assessment of antioxidant potential in Chinese tonifying herbs. Phytother. Res. 2004; 18: 149-153.

  59. Poon MKT, Chiu PY, Mak DHF, Ko KM: Metformin protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatootoxicity in mice: Enhancement of  mitochondrial glutathione redox status. J. Pharmacol. Sci. (formerly Jpn J Pharmacol) 2004; 93: 501-504.

  60. Ko KM, Mak DHF, Chiu PY, Poon MKT: Pharmacological basis of “Yang-invigoration” in Chinese medicine. TiPs 2004; 25: 3-6.

  61. Mak DHF, Chiu PY, Poon MKT, Ng TTL, Chung YK, Lam BYH, Du Y, Ko KM: A Yang-promoting Chinese herbal suppository preparation enhances the antioxidant status of red cells in male human subjects. Phytother. Res. 2004; 18: 525-530.

  62. Chiu PY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury partly by inducing Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in rats. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2004; 266: 139-144.

  63. Siu KM, Mak DHF,Chiu PY, Poon MKT, Du Y, Ko KM: Pharmacological basis of ‘Yin-nourishing’ and ‘Yang-invigorating’ actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci 2004; 76: 385-395.

  64. Chiu PY, Mak DHF, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Role of cytochrome P-450 in schisandrin B induced antioxidant and heat shock responses in mouse liver. Life Sci. 2005; 77: 2887-2895.

  65. Ko KM, Chiu PY: Structural determinants of schisandrin B for enhancing mitochondrial functional and glutathione status as well as heat shock protein expression in rat hearts and H9c2 cells. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2005; 276: 227-234.

  66. Du Y, Ko KM: Effects of emodin treatment on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and antioxidant components as well as susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts: Single versus multiple doses and gender difference. Life Sci. 2005; 77: 2770-2782.

  67. Leung HY, Chiu PY, Poon MKT, Ko KM: A Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula enhances mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity in various tissues of male and female rats. Rejuven. Res. 2005; 8: 238-247.

  68. Ko KM, Chan K, Shek L, Yeung J, Chui SH: A “Yang-invigorating” Chinese herbal suppository preparation relieves symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease. MEDIMOND (International Proceedings) New Trends in Alzheimer and Parkinson Related Disorders ADPD 2005: 243-246

  69. Du Y, Ko KM: Oleanolic acid protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant mechanism mediated by glutathione and a-tocopherol in rats. Planta Med. 2006; 72: 222-227

  70. Ko KM, Chiu PY: Biochemical basis of the “Qi-invigorating” action of Schisandra berry (Wu-Wei-Zi) in Chinese medicine. Amer. J. Chinese Med. 2006; 34: 171-176.

  71. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Poon MKT, Mak DHF, Ko KM: Effects of schisandrin B enantiomers on cellular glutathione and menadione toxicity in AML12 hepatocytes. Pharmacology 2006; 77:63-70

  72. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Poon MKT, Lee SST, Ko KM: Schisandrin B induced antioxidant response is partly mediated by cytochrome P-4502E1 catalyzed reaction in mouse liver. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2006; 293: 87-92

  73. Ko KM, Leon TYY, Mak DHF, Chiu PY, Du Y, Poon MKT: A characteristic pharmacological action of ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonifying herbs: Enhancement of myocardial ATP generation capacity. Phytomedicine 2006; 13: 636-642.

  74. Du Y, Ko KM: Effects of pharmacological preconditioning by emodin/oleanolic acid treatment and/or ischemic preconditioning on mitochondrial antioxidant components as well as the susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2006; 288: 135-142.

  75. Pan, SY, Yang R, Han YF, Dong H, Feng XD, Li N, Geng W, Ko KM: High doses of bifendate elevate serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in rabbits and mice: animal models of acute hypertriglyceridemia. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2006; 27: 673-678.

  76. Pan SY, Yang H, Han YF, Zhao XY, Li WY, Ko KM: A novel experimental model of acute hypertriglyceridemia induced by schisandrin B. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006; 537: 200-204

  77. Mak DHF, Chiu PY, Dong TTX, Tsim KWK, Ko KM: Dang-Gui Buxue Tang produces a more potent cardioprotective effect than its component herb extracts and enhances glutathione status in rat heart mitochondria and erythrocytes. Phytotherapy Res. 2006; 20: 561-567

  78. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Poon MKT, Mak DHF, Ko KM: (-) Schisandrin B is more potent than its enantiomer in enhancing cellular glutathione and heat shock protein production as well as protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2006; 289: 185-191

  79. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Chronic schisandrin B treatment improves mitochondrial antioxidant status and tissue heat shock protein production in various tissues of young adult and middle-aged rats. Biogerontology 2006; 7: 199-210.

  80. Chiu PY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B-induced increase in cellular glutathione level and protection against oxidant injury are mediated by the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and regeneration in AML12 and H9c2 cells. Biofactors 2006; 26: 221-230.

  81. Pan SY, Han YF, Yang R, Dong H, Ko KM: Evaluations of acute tacrine treatment on, passive-avoidance response, open-field behavior, and toxicity in 17- and 30-day-old mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2006; 85: 50-56.

  82. Pan SY, Yang R, Dong H, Han YF, Yu ZL, Ko KM: Bifendate treatment attenuates hepatic steatosis in cholesterol/bile salt- and high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006; 552: 170-175.

  83. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu AHY, Poon MKT, Dong TTX, Tsim KWK, Ko KM: Dang-Gui Buxue Tang protects against oxidant injury by enhancing cellular glutathione in H9c2 cells: Role of glutathione synthesis and regeneration. Planta Med. 2007; 73:134-141.

  84. Pan SY, Han YF, Lee NTK, Dong H, Yu ZL, Ko KM. Evaluation of acute bis(7)-tacrine treatment on behavioral functions in 17-day- and 30-day-old mice, with attention to drug toxicity. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2007; 86: 778-783.

  85. Ko KM, Leung HY: Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities of Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chinese Medicine 2:3 doi:10.1186/1749-8546-2-3.

  86. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu AHL, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Schisandrin B decreases the sensitivity of mitochondria to calcium ion-induced permeability transition and protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity in mouse livers. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007; 30: 1108-1112.

  87. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu AHL, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Schisandrin B decreases the sensitivity of mitochondria to calcium ion-induced permeability transition and protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2007; 28: 1559-1565.

  88. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu AHL, Chen N, Poon MKT, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula produces generalized tissue protection against oxidative damage in rats. Rejuven. Res. 2008; 11: 43-62.

  89. Pan SY, Dong H, Xiang CJ,  Zhao XY, Fang HY, Wang H, Yu ZL, Fong WF, Ko KM: Bicyclol, a synthetic dibenzocycloocatadiene derivative, decreases hepatic lipids but increase serum triglyceride level in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2007; 59: 1657-1662.

  90. Poon MKT, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu AHL, Ko KM: A ‘Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Phytother. Res. 2008; 22: 131-133.

  91. Pan SY, Dong H, Zhao XY, Xiang CJ, Wang H, Fong WF, Yu ZL, Ko KM: Schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis reduces hepatic lipid contents in hypercholesterolaemic mice J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2008; 60: 399-403.

  92. Leung HY, Ko KM: Herba Cistanche extract enhances mitochondrial ATP generation in rat hearts and H9c2 cells. Pharmaceut. Biol. 2008; 46: 418-424.

  93. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B enhances renal mitochondrial antioxidant status, functional and structural integrity, and protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2008; 31: 602-605.

  94. Chiu PY, Luk KF, Leung HY, Ng KM, Ko KM: Schisandrin B stereoisomers protect against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and associated changes in Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and mitochondrial membrane potential in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Life Sci. 2008; 82: 1092-1101.

  95. Luk KF, Ko KM, Ng KM: Separation and purification of schisandrin B from Fructus Schisandrae. Ind. Engineering Chem. Res. 2008; 47: 4193-4207.

  96. Luk KF, Ko KM, Ng KM: Separation and Purification of (-)Schisandrin B from Schisandrin B Stereoisomers. Biochem. Engineering J. 2008; 42: 55-60.

  97. Chen N, Chiu PY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B enhances cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural integrity, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2008; 31: 1387-1391.

  98. Zhang GQ, Yu ZL, Liu WT, Wang H, Fong WF, Tang LM, Xiong YH, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with a Chinese herbal formula, Sheng-Mai-San, improves cardiac contractile function in aged rats: The role of Ca2+ homeostasis. Rejuven. Res. 2008; 11: 989-990.

  99. Ko KM, Chen N, Leung HY, Leong EPK, Poon MKT, Chiu PY: Long-term schisandrin B treatment mitigates age-related impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues, and improves the survival of aging C57BL/6J mice. Biofactors 2008; 34: 331-42.

  100. Cheng YS, Lam KW, Ng KM, Ko KM, Wibowo C: An integrative approach to product development - A skin-care cream. Computers Chem. Eng. 2009; 33: 1097-113.

  101. Mao QQ, Ip SP, Ko KM: Peony glycosides protect against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Cell Mol. Neurobiol. 2009; 29: 643-7.

  102. Chan KN, Lau CC, Chow KL, Ko KM, Tsim KWK, Ng KM: Effect of extraction solvent on the bioactivity of an herbal formulation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009; 48: 4852-7.

  103. Pan SY, Yu ZL, Xiang CJ, Dong H, Fang HY, Ko KM: Comparison studies of tacrine and bis(7)-tacrine on the suppression of scopolamine-induced behavioral changes and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in mice. Pharmacology 2009; 83: 294-300.

  104. Chiu PY, Luk KF, Leung HY, Ng KM, Ko KM: Schisandrin B stereoisomers protect against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and associated changes in the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and mitochondrial membrane potential in AML12 hepatocytes. Phytother. Res. 2009; 23: 1592-602.

  105. Nishida H, Tatewaki N, Nakajima Y, Magara T, Ko KM, Hamamori Y, Konishi T: Inhibition of ATR protein kinase activity by schisandradrin B in DNA damage response. Nucleic Acid Res. 2009; 37: 5678-89.

  106. Ko KM, Chen N, Chiu PY: Protective effect of red wine extract supplement against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: Effects on mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural parameters. J. Complement. Integre. Med. 2009; 6: Article 21.

  107. Ko KM, Siu AHL, Poon MKT, Leung HY, Chiu PY: Exposure to oscillating high electrical potential and the associated low frequency magnetic field enhances the hepatoprotective action of schisandrin B in vivo and in vitro. J. Complement. Integre. Med. 2009; 6: Article 23.

  108. Mao QQ, Ip SP, Ko KM, Tsai SH, Xian YF, Che CT: Effects of peony glycosides on mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress: Further evidence on antidepressant-like activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 124: 316-20.

  109. Mao QQ, Ip SP, Ko KM, Tsai SH, Che CT: Peony glycosides produce antidepressant-like action in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress: Effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain-derived neutotrophic factor. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009; 33: 1211-8.

  110. Chen N, Chiu PY, Ko KM: A red wine extract supplement protects against apoptosis and inhibits changes in mitochondrial permeability and membrane potential. J. Complement. Integr. Med. 2010; 7: Article 3.

  111. Ko KM, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu ADL, Chen N, Leong EPK, Poon MKT: Long-term dietary supplementation with a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula increases lifespan and migigates age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability of various tissues in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Rejuvenation. Res. 2010; 13: 168-71.

  112. Leong PK, Chen N, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ma CW, Tang QT, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with Shengmai San-derived herbal supplement (Wei Kang Su) enhances antioxidant response in various tissues of rats with protection against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. J. Med. Food 2010; 13: 427-38.

  113. Siu AHL, Ko KM: Herba Cistanche extract enhances mitochondrial glutathione status and respiration in rat hearts, with possible induction of uncoupling proteins. Pharm. Biol. 2010; 48: 512-7.

  114. Chen N, Ko KM: Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat hearts. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2010; 33: 825-9.

  115. Chen ML, Tsai SH, Ip SP, Ko KM, Che CT: Long-term treatment with a "Yang-invigorating" Chinese herbal formula, Wu-Zi-Yan-Zong-Wan, reduces mortality and liver oxidative damage in chronic alcohol-intoxicated rats. Rejuvenation. Res. 2010; 13: 459-67.

  116. Pan SY, Chen SB, Dong HG, Yu ZL, Dong JC, Long ZX, Fong WF, Han YF, Ko KM: New perspectives on Chinese herbal medicine (Zhong-Yao) research and development. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011; 2011: Article 403709.

  117. Chen ML, Ip SP, Tsai SH, Ko KM, Che CT: Biochemical mechanism of Wu-Zi-Yan-Zong-Wan, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, against alcohol-induced oxidative damage in CYP2E1 cDNA-transfected HepG2 (E47) cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 128: 116-22.

  118. Lam PY, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Chen N, Leong EPK, Ko KM: Schisandrin B co-treament ameliorates the impairment on mitochondrial antioxidant status in various tissues of long-term ethanol treated rats. Fitoterapia 2010; 81: 1239-45.

  119. Pan SY, Pan S, Yu ZL, Ma DL, Chen SB, Fong WF, Han YF, Ko KM: New perspectives on innovative drug discovery: An overview. J. Pharm. Pharmaceut 2010; 13: 450-71.

  120. Pan SY, Yu ZL, Dong H, Xiang CJ, Fang WF, Ko KM: Ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae decreases hepatic triglyceride level in mice fed with a high fat/ cholesterol diet, with attention to acute toxicity. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011; 2011: Article 729412.

  121. Chiu PY, Wong SM, Leung HY, Leong EPK, Chen N, Zhou L, Zou Z, Lam PY, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with Danshen-Gegen Decoction protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury via the redox-sensitive protein kinase C-epsilon/mK(ATP) Pathway in Rats. Rejuvenation Res. 2011; 14: 173-84.

  122. Chiu PY, Lam PY, Leung HY, Leong PK, Ma CW, Tang QT, Ko KM: Co-treatment with Shengmai San-derived herbal product ameliorates chronic ethanol-induced liver damage in rats. Rejuvenation Res. 2011; 14: 17-23.

  123. Lam PY, Ko KM: (-)Schisandrin B ameliorates paraquat-Induced oxidative stress by suppressing glutathione depletion and enhancing glutathione recovery in differentiated PC12 cells. Biofactors 2011; 37: 51-7.

  124. Chen Y, Ip SP, Ko KM, Poon TCW, Ng EWY, Lai PBS, Mao QQ, Xian YF, Che CT: A proteomic approach in investigating the hepatoprotective mechanism of schisandrin B: Role of Raf kinase inhibitor protein. J. Proteome Res. 2011; 10: 299-304.

  125. Lam PY, Yan CW, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue. Fitoterapia 2011; 82: 393-400.

  126. Chiu PY, Chen N, Leong PK, Leung HY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 Cells. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2011; 350: 237-50.

  127. Leong PK, Chiu PY, Chen N, Leung HY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in AML12 hepatocytes. Free Radic. Res. 2011; 45: 483-95.

  128. Wong SM, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Zhou L, Zuo Z, Lam Y, Ko KM: Myocardial post-conditioning with Danshen-Gegen decoction protects against isoporterenol-induced myocardial injury via PKCƐ/mKATP-mediated pathway in rats. Chinese Medicine 2011; 6: 7.

  129. Pan SY, Dong H, Guo BF, Zhang Y, Yu Q, Ye Y, Yu ZL, Han YF, Ko KM: Tacrine treatment at high dose suppresses the recognition memory in juvenile and adult mice with attention to hepatotoxicity. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2011; 108: 421-7.

  130. Chiu PY, Wong SM, Leung HY, Leong PK, Chen N, Zhou L, Zuo Z, Lam Y, Ko KM: Acute treatment with Danshen-Gegen decoction protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury via the redox-sensitive PKCƐ/mKATP pathway in rats. Phytomedicine 2011; 108: 916-25.

  131. Wong HS, Leung HY, Ko KM: ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonifying herbs enhance mitochondrial ATP generation in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Chinese Medicine 2011; 2: 1-5.

  132. Chiu PY, PY Lam, Yan CW, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts. Fitoterapia 2011; 82: 682-91.

  133. Giridharan VV, Thandavarayan RA, Sato S, Ko KM, Konishi T: Prevention of scopolamine-induced memory deficits by schisandrin B, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis in mice. Free Radic. Res. 2011; 45: 950-8.

  134. Pan SY, Dong H, Guo BF, Zhang Y, Yu ZL, Fong WF, Han YF, Ko KM: Effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/ hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice with and without the influence of fenofibrate. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 2011; 383: 585-91.

  135. Lau DTW, Poon MKT, Leung HY, Ko KM: Immunopotentiating activity of Dendrobium species in mouse splenocytes. Chinese Medicine 2011; 2: 103-8.

  136. Leung HY, Ma CW, Tang QT, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with a compound polysaccharide-based health product (Infinitus Polysac Plus) enhances innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Chinese medicine 2011; 2: 178-85.

  137. Pan SY, Zhang Y, Guo BF, Han YF, Ko KM: Tacrine and bis(7)-tacrine attenuate cycloheximide-induced amnesia in mice, with attention to acute toxicity. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2011; 109: 261-5.

  138. Lam PY, Leong PK, Chen N, Ko KM: Schisandrin B enhances the glutathione redox cycling and protects against oxidant injury in different types of cultured cells. Biofactors 2011; 37: 439-46.

  139. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Leong PK, Chen N, Zhou L, Zuo Z, Lam PY, Ko KM: Danshen-Gegen decoction protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 and PKCƐ/mKATP pathways in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Phytomedicine 2012; 19: 99-110.

  140. Leong PK, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM: Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed reactive oxygen species production mediates the (−)schisandrin B-induced glutathione and heat shock responses in AML12 hepatocytes. Cell Biol. Int. 2012; 36: 321-6.

  141. Leong PK, Chen N, Ko KM: Mitochondrial decay in aging: ‘Qi-invigorating’ schisandrin B as a hormetic agent for mitigating age-related diseases. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 2012; 39: 256-64.

  142. Lam PY, Wong HS, Chen J, Ko KM: A hypothetical anti-aging mechanism of ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs. Chinese Medicine 2012; 3: 72-8.

  143. Chen N, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM, Konishi T: Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed reactive oxygen species production mediates the (-)schisandrin B-induced glutathione and heat shock responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. . Ind. J. Pharmacol. 2012; 44: 204-9.

  144. Leong PK, Chiu PY, Ko KM: Prooxidant-induced glutathione antioxidant response in vitro and in vivo: A comparative study between schisandrin B and curcumin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2012; 35: 464-72.

  145. Giridharan VV, Thandavarayan RA, Bhilwade HN, Ko KM, Watanabe K, Konishi T: Schisandrin B, attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity through modulation of NF-κB/p53 pathway in mice. Free Radic. Res. 2012; 46: 50-60.

  146. Wong HS, Cheung WF, Tang WL, Ko KM: ‘Qi-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs (Shens) stimulate mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in situ and rat hearts ex vivo. Chinese medicine 2012; 3: 101-5.

  147. Lam PY, Ko KM: Beneficial effect of (-)schisandrin B against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced cell death in PC12 cells. Biofactors 2012; 38: 219-225.

  148. Lam PY, Chen N, Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM: Neuroprotection against oxidative injury by a nucleic acid–based health product (Squina DNA) through enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional capacity. J. Med. Food 2011; 15: 629-38.

  149. Pan SY, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Tang MK, Yu ZL, Ko KM: New perspectives in complementary and alternative medicine: An overview and alternative therapy. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2012; 18: 20-36.

  150. Lam PY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B as a hormetic agent for preventing age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative Med. Cell. Longevity 2012; 2012: 250825.

  151. Lau YT, Chen N, Ko KM, Ng KM: Product Design: A nanomized nutraceutical with enhanced bioactivity and bioavailability. Indust. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012; 51: 7320-6.

  152. Pan SY, Yu Q, Zhang Y, Wang XY, Sun N, Yu ZL, Ko KM: Dietary Fructus Schisandrae extracts and fenofibrate regulate the serum/hepatic lipid-profile in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice, with attention to hepatotoxicity. Lipids Health Dis. 2012; 11: 120.

  153. Leung HY, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with a health product (Squina Diacylglyceryl Ether) enhances innate and adaptive immunity in mice. J. Complement. Integr. Med. 2012; 9: Article 32.

  154. Pan SY, Gao SH, Lin RC, Zhou SF, Dong HG, Tang MK, Yu ZL, Ko KM: New perspectives on dietary-derived treatments and food safety – Antinomy in a new era.Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutri. 2013; 55: 1835-59.

  155. Wong HS, Ko KM: Herba Cistanches stimulates cellular glutathione redox cycling by reactive oxygen species generated from mitochondrial respiration in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Pharmaceut. Biol. 2013; 51: 64-73.

  156. Pan SY, Zhou SF, Gao SH, Yu ZL, Zhang SF, Tang MK, Sun JN, Ma ML, Han YF, Fong WF, Ko KM: New perspectives on how to discover drugs from herbal medicines: CAM’s outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013: Article 627375.

  157. Chen J, Ko KM: Ursolic acid-enriched Herba Cynomorii extract protects against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells and rat myocardium by increasing mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and enhancing cellular glutathione redox cycling, possibly through mitochondrial uncoupling. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013: Article 924128.

  158. Liu LL, He LS, Xu Y, Han Z, Li YX, Zhong JL, Guo XR, Zhang XX, Ko KM, Qian PY: Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of citreamicin ε-induced HeLa cells is associated with reactive oxygen species generation. Chem. Res. Toxicol.2013; 26: 1055-63.

  159. Leong PK, Leung HY, Wong HS, Chen J, Ma CW, Yang Y, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with an herbal formula MCC reduces the weight gain in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Chinese Medicine 2013; 4: 63-71.

  160. Pan SY, Jia ZH, Zhang Y, Yu Q, Wang XY, Sun N, Zhu PL, Yu ZL, Ko KM: A novel mouse model of combined hyperlipidemia associated with steatosis and liver injury by a single-dose intragastric administration of schisandrin B/ cholesterol/ bile salts mixture. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2013; 123: 110-9.

  161. Leong PK, Chen N, Ko KM: Schisandrin B enhances hepatic/myocardial glutathione regeneration capacity and protects against oxidant injury in rat livers and hearts. Open Nutraceut. J. 2013; 6: 124-8.

  162. Chen J, Wong HS, Ko KM: Ursolic acid-enriched Herba Cynomorii extract induces mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation: Protection against menadione cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Molecules 2014; 19: 1576-91.

  163. Sun N, Pan SY, Zhang Y, Wang XY, Zhu PL, Chu ZS, Yu ZL, Zhou SF, Ko KM: Dietary pulp from Fructus Schisandra Chinensis supplementation reduces serum/hepatic lipid and hepatic glucose levels in mice fed a normal or high cholesterol/ bile salt diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2014; 13: 46.

  164. Leong PK, Leung HY, Wong HS, Chen JH, Chan WM, Ma CW, Yang YT, Ko KM: Long-term treatment with an herbal formula MCC ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction in high fat diet-induced obese mice: A comparative study among MCC and various combinations of its constituents. Chinese Medicine 2014; 5: 34-46.

  165. Chen J, Wong HS, Leung HY, Leong PK, Chan WM, Chen N, Ko KM: An ursolic acid-enriched extract of Cynomorium songaricum protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity and gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats possibly through a mitochondrial pathway: A comparison with ursolic acid. J. Funct. Foods 2014; 7: 330-41.

  166. Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, Zhang SF, Tang MK, Sun JN, Ko KM:Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: The current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014; 2014: Article 525340.

  167. Wang XY, Yu ZL, Pan SY, Zhang Y, Sun N, Zhu PL, Jia ZH, Zhou SF, Ko KM: Supplementation with the extract of Schisandrae Fructus pulp, seed, or their combination influences the metabolism of lipids and glucose in mice fed with normal and hypercholesterolemic diet. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014; 2014: Article 472638.

  168. Wong HS, Chen N, Leong PK, Ko KM: β-Sitosterol enhances cellular glutathione redox cycling by reactive oxygen species generated from mitochondrial respiration: Protection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells and rat hearts. Phytother. Res. 2014; 28: 999-1006.

  169. Chen J, Wong HS, Leung HY, Leong PK, Chan WM, Ko KM: An ursolic acid-enriched Cynomorium songarium extract attenuates high fat diet-induced obesity in mice possibly through mitochondrial uncoupling. J. Funct. Foods 2014; 9: 211-24.

  170. Wong HS, Chen J, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: Cistanches Herba reduces the weight gain in high fat diet-induced obese mice possibly through mitochondrial uncoupling. J. Funct. Foods 2014; 10: 292-304.

  171. Chen J, Wong HS, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: New insights into the chemical and biochemical basis of the ’Yang-invigorating’ action of Chinese Yang-tonic herbs. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014; 2014: Article 856273.

  172. Zhang Y, Pan SY, Zhou SF, Wang XY, Sun N, Zhu PL, Chu ZS, Yu ZL, Ko KM: Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice. Drug Design Develop. Ther. 2014; 8: 1429-39.

  173. Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Chen JH, Wong HS, Ma CW, Zou SY, Ko KM: Acute and long-term treatments with an herbal formula V-Vital capsule increase exercise endurance capacity in weight-loaded swimming mice. Chinese Medicine 2014; 5: 153-164.

  174. Lau YT, Ng KM, Chen N, Lau DTW, Ko KM, Leung PC, Wibowo C: Quality assurance of Chinese herbal medicines: Procedure for multiple herb extraction. AIChE J. 2014; 60: 4014-26.

  175. Wong HS, Chen J, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: β-Sitosterol protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity but not gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats via the induction of mitochondrial glutathione redox cycling. Molecules 2014; 19: 17649-62.

  176. Leong PK, Lam PY, Chen N, Ko KM: Schisandrin B enhances glutathione redox cycling and protects against β-amyloid-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: A comparative study of various phytochemicals. Open Nutraceut. J. 2014; 7: 49-57.

  177. Chen J, Wong HS, Ko KM: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production mediates ursolic acid-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling, with protection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Food & Funct. 2014; 6: 549-57.

  178. Pan SY, Litscher G, Chan K, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, Ko KM: Traditional medicines in the world: Where to go next? Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014; 2014: Article 739895.

  179. Leong PK, Wong HS, Chen J, Ko KM: Yang/Qi invigoration: An herbal therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome with Yang deficiency? Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015; 2015: Article 945901.

  180. Zhu PL, Pan SY, Zhou SF, Zhang Y, Wang XY, Sun N, Chu ZS, Yu ZL, Ko KM: Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. Drug Design Dev. Ther. 2015; 9: 923-35.

  181. Wong HS, Chen J, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: A Cistanches Herba fraction/β-sitosterol causes a redox-sensitive induction of mitochondrial uncoupling and activation of adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 in C2C12 myotubes: A possible mechanism underlying the weight reduction effect. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015; 2015: Article 142059.

  182. Thandavarayan RA, Giridharan VV, Arumugam S, Suzuki K, Ko KM, Krishnamurthy P, Watanabe K, Konishi T: Schisandrin B prevents doxorubicin induced cardiac dysfunction by modulation of DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation through inhibition of MAPK/p53 Signaling. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0119214.

  183. Siu WS, Ko CH, Lam KW, Wat E, Shum WT, Lau CBS, Ko KM, Leung KH, Lau DTW, Leung PC: Evaluation of a topical herbal agent for the promotion of bone healing. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015; 2015: Article 905270.

  184. Wong HS, Zou SY, Li JP, Ma CW, Chen J, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: Lily Bulb Nectar produces expectorant and anti-tussive activities, and suppresses cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in the respiratory tract in mice. Chinese Medicine 2015; 6: 136-146.

  185. Zhang Y, Zhou ZW, Jin H, Hu C, He ZX, Yu ZL, Ko KM, Yang T, Zhang X, Pan SY, Zhou SF: Schisandrin B inhibits cell growth and induces cellular apoptosis and autophagy in mouse hepatocytes and macrophages: Implication for its hepatotoxicity. Drug Design Dev. Ther. 2015; 9: 2001-27.

  186. Leong PK, Ko KM: Schisandrin B induces an Nrf2-mediated thioredoxin expression and suppresses the activation of inflammasome in vitro and in vivo. Biofactors 2015; 41: 314-23.

  187. Qian T, Leong PK, Ko KM, Chan W: Investigation of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of schisandrin B from Schisandrae Fructus by liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacol. Pharm. 2015; 6: 363-73.

  188. Wong HS, Li JP, Ma CW, Chen J, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: Hawthorn Nectar enhances gastrointestinal motility as well as stimulates intestinal amylase and lipase activities in mice. Chinese Medicine 2015; 6: 159-68.

  189. Chu ZS, Yu ZL, Pan SY, Jia ZH, Zhang Y, Wang XY, Zhu PL, Wang XJ, Ko KM: A comparative study between Wuweizi seed and its post-ethanol extraction residue in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2015; 14: 93.

  190. Giridharan VV, Thandavarayan RA, Arumugam S, Mizuno M, Nawa H, Suzuki K, Ko KM, Krishnamurthy P, Watanabe K, Konishi T: Schisandrin B ameliorates ICV-infused amyloid β induced oxidative stress and neuronal dysfunction through inhibiting RAGE/NF-κB/MAPK and up-regulating HSP/beclin expression. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0142483.

  191. So RWL, Wong HS, Ko KM: A traditional Chinese medicine approach in treating depression by promoting liver Qi circulation: A western medicine perspective. Chinese Medicine 2015; 6: 187-95.

  192. Zhang L, Xiang L, Liu Y, Venkatraman P, Chong L, Cho J, Bonilla S, Jin Z, Pang CP, Ko KM, Ma P, Zhang M, Leung YF: A naturally-derived compound Schisandrin B enhanced light sensation in the pde6c zebrafish model of retinal degeneration. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0149663.

  193. Wong HS, Leong PK, Chen J, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: β-Sitosterol increases mitochondrial electron transport by fluidizing mitochondrial membranes and enhances mitochondrial responsiveness to increasing energy demand by the induction of uncoupling in C2C12 myotubes. J. Funct. Foods 2016; 23: 253-260.

  194. Leong PK, Ko KM: Induction of the glutathione antioxidant response/glutathione redox cycling by nutraceuticals: mechanism of protection against oxidant-induced cell death. Curr Trends Nutraceuticals 2016; 1: 1-9.

  195. Leong PK, Wong HS, Chen J, Chan WM, Leung HY, Ko KM: Differential action between Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B in eliciting an anti- inflammatory action: The depletion of reduced glutathione and the induction of an antioxidant response. PLoS ONE 2016; 11: e0155879.

  196. Chung YK, Chen J, Ko KM: Spleen function and anxiety in Chinese Medicine: A western medicine perspective. Chinese Medicine 2016; 7: 110-123.

  197. Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Chen J, Zhu H, Ning J, Yang Y, Ma CW, Ko KM: An herbal formula (GPC) suppresses the releases of pro-inflammatory effectors in lipopolysaccharide/ peptidoglycan-activated RAW264.7 macrophages and reduces the extent of chemical-induced acute/ chronic inflammation in rodents. Chinese Medicine 2016; 7: 153-165.

  198. Leong PK, Ko KM: Schisandrin B: A Double-Edged Sword in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2016; 7: Article ID 6171658.

  199. Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Wang XY, Zhu PL, Chu ZS, Pan SY, Xie M, Ko KM: Biochemical mechanism underlying hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis/hepatomegaly induced by acute schisandrin B treatment in mice Lipids Health Dis. 2017; 16:8.

  200. Leong PK, Chen J, Chan WM, Leung HY, Chan L, Ko KM: Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product) Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo. Antioxidant 2017; 6: 28.

  201. Chen J, HS Wong, Leong PK, Leung HY, Chan WM, Ko KM: Ursolic acid induces mitochondrial biogenesis through the activation of AMPK and PGC-1 in C2C12 myotubes: a possible mechanism underlying its beneficial effect on exercise endurance. Food & Function 2017; 8: 2425-2436.

  202. HY Cherie Leung, Leong PK, Chen J, Ko KM: Inter-Organ Relationships among Gut, Lung and Skin beyond the Pathogenesis of Allergies: Relevance to the Zang-Fu Theory in Chinese Medicine. Chinese Medicine 2017; 8: 73-81.

  203. Ko KM, Leong PK: Hormesis: mechanistic implications in herbal treatment in traditional Chinese medicine Longhua Chinese Medicine 2018. doi: 10.21037/lcm.2018.04.01