Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, Zhang SF, Tang MK, Sun JN, Ko KM
 School of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.
 Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Austria.
 School of Basic Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.
 College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA.
 School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.
 American Academy of Natural Medicine, Costa Mesa, USA.
 Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong.
SCHISANDRAE FRUCTUS (SF), WHICH POSSESSES FIVE TASTES: sweet (fruit skin), sour (pulp), bitter/pungent (seed core), and saltiness (all parts), can produce a wide spectrum of biological activities in the body. Here, we investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract of SF pulp, seed, or their combination (namely, EtSF-P, EtSF-S, or EtSF-P/S, resp.; collectively called EtSF) on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal diet- (ND-) and hypercholesterolemic diet- (HCLD-) fed mice. Supplementation with EtSF significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 18-47% in both ND- and HCLD-fed mice. EtSF supplementation reduced serum triglyceride levels (approximately 29%), whereas EtSF-P and EtSF-S/P elevated serum cholesterol (up to 26 and 44%, resp.) in HCLD-fed mice. Treatment with EtSF decreased hepatic glucose levels (by 9-44%) in both ND- and HCLD-fed mice. Supplementation with EtSF-S or EtSF-S/P (at 1 and 3%) increased biliary or fecal TC contents in HCLD-fed mice. However, supplementation with EtSF-S/P at 9% reduced biliary TC levels in HCLD-fed mice. EtSF-P or EtSF-S/P supplementation reduced serum alanine aminotransferase activity in HCLD-fed mice. The findings suggested that supplementation with EtSF lowered lipid and glucose accumulation in the liver and increased fecal cholesterol contents in mice. Dietary supplementation with EtSF-P or EtSF-S/P attenuated liver damage in HCLD-fed mice.