Lam PY, Leong PK, Chen N, Ko KM
Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, China.
Tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) challenge caused an initial depletion of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH), which was followed by a gradual restoration of cellular GSH in AML12, H9c2, and differentiated PC12 cells. The time-dependent changes in cellular GSH induced by tBHP were monitored as a measure of GSH recovery capacity (GRC), of which glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL)-mediated GSH synthesis were found to play an essential role. While glutathione redox cycling sustained the GSH level during the initial tBHP-induced depletion, GSH synthesis restores the GSH level thereafter. The effects of (-)schisandrin B [(-)Sch B] and its analogs (Sch A and Sch C) on GRC were also examined in the cells. (-)Sch B and Sch C, but not Sch A, ameliorated the extent of tBHP-induced GSH depletion, indicative of enhanced glutathione redox cycling. However, the degree of restoration of GSH post-tBHP challenge was not affected or even decreased. Pretreatment with (-)Sch B and Sch C, but not Sch A, protected against oxidant injury in the cells. The (-)Sch B afforded cytoprotection was abolished by N,N′-bis(chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea pretreatment suggesting the enhancement of glutathione redox cycling is crucially involved in the cytoprotection afforded by (-)Sch B against oxidative stress-induced cell injury.